Parents and Teachers’ Involvement in Designing Educational Programmes within the Albanian Curricula of Pre-university Education: Their Perceptions in this Context


  • Manjola Lumani Zaçellari Aleksandër Moisiu University of Durrës, Albania
  • Heliona Miço Epoka University, Albania



participation, children, parents, teachers, legal aspects, Albania


The purpose of this study is to analyse the legislative measures and their implementation regarding the participation of children, parents and teachers in creating an educational program in pre-university education system, as a need for better involvement in school of all the actors, as well as the need for the children’s wellbeing. In addition, the study aims to bring parents’ and teachers’ views on the obstacles they face when they try to collaborate and participate in school life and in designing an educational program. Qualitative methods are used to achieve the aim of this study. The data were collected through document analysis (legislation, strategies, and regulations) for analysing how the law addresses participation of children, parents and teachers’ in school and through semi-structured interviews with parents and teachers from two primary schools so that they can state their perceptions on participation in school life. Each of them was posed 12 different interview questions. After evaluating the responses, some important issues were identified. The participation of children, parents and teachers in Albanian education system has changed in recent years, even promoted as a key that leads to success. However, because of the monist system, where such participation was neither legally recognised nor culturally accepted, this trinomial collaboration has not been easily introduced and integrated in the Albanian educational system. However, parents do not feel very involved in school life, or appreciated when they try to get involved, even though it is legally admitted the need for the collaboration between family and school. They neither take part in the approval of the curricula of the educational institution, nor in the selection of school textbooks as provided by the law. Research has shown that schools as bureaucratic and conservative institutions need to have clear written policies to encourage the participation of the parents and children when drafting an education program. However, when teachers were asked about parents’ participation in school, they said that in many cases parents neglect the collaboration with the school and appear usually when there are problems or troubles, while the participation of children in creating an educational program is still lagging behind.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

  • Manjola Lumani Zaçellari, Aleksandër Moisiu University of Durrës, Albania

    Full-time lecturer in the Department of Albanian Language at Aleksandër Moisiu University of Durrës. She holds a PhD in linguistics. She does research in Linguistics, Didactics, Pedagogy etc.

  • Heliona Miço, Epoka University, Albania

    Lecturer of Law, at “Epoka University” and a researcher in the law and the right to education, educational management, child’s rights and social inclusion in education. She has defended her PhD at the Institute of European Studies, in University of Tirana


Bezati, F., & Hoxhallari, R. (2011). Përfshirja e prindërve në jetën e shkollës Rekomandime për një partneritet të suksesshëm Shkollë -Familje-Komunitet [Parents’ involvement in school life Recommendations for a successful Family -Community Partnership]. Retrieved April 4, 2019 from

Chang, M., Park, B., Singh, K., & Sung, Y. Y. (2009). Parental Involvement, Parenting Behaviors, and Children’s Cognitive Development in Low -Income and Minority Families. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 23(3), 309–324.

Child Trends. (2018). Parental Involvement in Schools. Retrieved February 20, 2019 from

Commission of the European Communities. (2007, November 6). Commission Staff Working Document. Albania 2007 Progress Report accompanying the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council Enlargement Strategy and Main Challenges 2007–2008 {COM(2007) 663 final}. Retrieved from

Council Recommendation on key competences for lifelong learning (Text with EEA relevance.). (2018, May 22). OJ C 189, 4.6.2018.

Dashwood, T. (2019, May 10). How to design and educational program. Retrieved March 20, 2019 from (n.d.). Educational program. Retrieved March 21, 2019 from

Drummond, K. V., & Stipek, D. (2004). The elementary school journal; low-income parents’ beliefs about their role in children’s academic learning. Elementary school Journal, 104(3), 197–213.

Epstein, J. L., Sanders, M. G., Simon, B. S., Salinas, K. C., Jansorn, N. R., & Van Voorhis, F. L. (2002). School, family, and community partnerships: Your handbook for action (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Retrieved March 15, 2019 from

European Commission. (2001). European report on the quality of school education. Sixteen quality indicators. Luxembourg: European Communities. Retrieved March 10, 2019 from

European Commission. (2005). Evaluation of legislation, policy and practice on child participation in the European Union. Retrieved March 2, 2019 from–7bf6–47dc-bd03–8e2591961614.0001.01/DOC_1.

European Schoolnet. (2018). New European recommendations on enhancing collaborative teaching and learning in schools, Retrieved March 20, 2019 from

Fantuzzo, F., McWayne, C.M., Perry, M., & Childs, S. (2004). Multiple Dimensions of Family Involvement and Their Relations to Behavioral and Learning Competencies for Urban, Low- -Income Children. School Psychology Review, 33(4), 467–480. Retrieved February 2, from

Fullan, M., & Scott, G. (2014). New Pedagogies for Deep Learning Whitepaper: Education PLUS. Seattle, Washington: Collaborative Impact SPC. Retrieved from–1.pdf.

Gjermani, L., & Musai, B. (2008). Situata e përfshirjes së prindërve në edukim në Shqipëri [Parents Involvement in Education in Albania]. Tiranë, Shqipëri: UNICEF. Retrieved from

Gutek, G. (1995). A History of the Western Educational Experience (2nd ed.). Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.

Henderson, A.T., & Mapp, K.L. (2002). A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family, and community connections on student achievement. Austin, TX: National Center for Family and Community Connections with Schools. Retrieved from

Institute for Development of Education. (2017). Udhëzues për zhvillimin e kurrikulës së re në AMU (Klasat VI–IX) [Guide for the development of the new curriculum at AMU (Grades VI–IX)]. Retrieved April 2, 2019 from

Levenstein, Ph., & Levenstein, S. (2008). Messages from Home: The Parent -Child Home Program for Overcoming Educational Disadvantage. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Ligj Nr. 69 “Për Sistemin Arsimor Parauniversitar në Republikën e Shqipërisë” [Law No. 69 “On Pre-University Education System in the Republic of Albania”]. (2012, June 21).

MES. (2013). Dispozitat normative për sistemin arsimor parauniversitar [Normative provisions on Pre-University Education]. Retrieved April 10, 2019 from

Mita, N. (2002). Paketa e treguesve të cilësisë së arsimit [Package of education quality indicators ]. Vlerësimi i Arsimit, 1(1), 20–88.

Naseema, Sh. (2015). Why children should be seen and heard in school. World Economic Forum. Retrieved April 2, 2019 from

NCSE. (2006). Guidelines on the individual education plan process. Dublin: National Council for Special Education. Retrieved from:

Radu, B.M. (2011). Parental involvement in schools. A study of resources, mobilization, and inherent inequality. Journal of Comparative Research in Anthropology and Sociology, 2(2), 103–115. Retrieved from–22-Radu.pdf.

Saavedra, A., & Opfer, V. (2012). Learning 21st -century skills requires 21st -century teaching. The Phi Delta Kappan, 94(2), 8–13. Retrieved from

Save the children. (2017). Udhëzues praktik për hartimin dhe zbatimin e planit edukativ individual (PEI) [Practical Guide to Designing and Implementing an Individual Educational Plan (PEI)]. Retrieved March 22, 2019 from

Senge, P.M., Cambron -McCabe, N., Lucas, T., Smith, B., Dutton, J., & Kleiner A. (2012). Schools That Learn: A Fifth Discipline Fieldbook for Educators, Parents, and Everyone Who Cares About Education. London: Hodder & Stoughton General Division, Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

Smit, F., Moerel, H., van der Wolf, K., & Sleegers, P. (Ed.) (1999). Building bridges between home and school. Nijmegen: Institute for Applied Social Sciences, University Nijmegen. (1999). Retrieved May 10, 2020 from

Sota, J. (2014). Educational phenomena in Albania in the years of communist dictatorship and the reformation efforts after nineties. European Scientifi c Journal, 11, 1–46.

Udhëzim Nr. 25 Ministria e Arsimit, Sportit dhe Rinisë “Për Ngritjen dhe Funksionimin e Bordit të Institucionit Arsimor” [Instruction No. 25 of the Ministry of Education, Sports and Youth “On the establishment and functioning of the board of the educational institution” (2018, July 25)], Retrieved April 20, 2019 from

Udhëzim Nr. 27 Ministria e Arsimit, Sportit dhe Rinisë, Ministria e Financave dhe Ekonomisë për vitin shkollor 2018–2019 në sistemin arsimor parauniversitar” [Instruction No. 27 of the Ministry of Education, Sports and Youth and Ministry of Finance and Economy for the school year 2018–2019 in the pre -university education system]. (2018, August 16). Retrieved April 20, 2019 from

Udhëzim Nr. 29 Ministria e Arsimit, Sportit dhe Rinisë “Për procedurat e ndjekjes së arsimit bazë me kohë të pjesshme” [Instruction of the Ministry of Education and Science No. 29 “On the procedures for attending part -time basic education”]. (2013, August 2). Retrieved April 12, 2019 from

UNESCO. (2017). Albania education policy review: Issues and recommendations. Extended Report. Paris: Section of Education Policy (ED/PLS/EDP), Education Sector, UNESCO. Retrieved May, 10, from

Urdhër Nr. 267 Ministria e Arsimit, Sportit dhe Rinisë “Për përzgjedhjen dhe shitjen e teksteve shkollore të klasave 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 dhe 10 të sistemit arsimor parauniversitar për vitin shkollor 2018–2019 [Ministry of Education, Sport and Youth. Order No. 267, date: 15.05.2018 on “The selection, distribution and sale of textbooks of grades 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 of the Pre -university education system for the academic year 2018–2019]. (2018, May 15). Retrieved April 10, 2019 from–2019.pdf.

Urdhër nr. 343, datë 19.08.2013 i Ministrit të Arsimit dhe Shkencës. Neni 97 i Dispozitave Normative në Sistemin e Arsimit Parauniversitar miratuar nga “Për vitin shkollor 2018–2019 në sistemin e arsimit parauniversitar”. [Order no. 343, dated 19.08.2013 of the Minister of Education and Science. Article 97 of Normative Provisions in Pre- university Education System approved by the “In the school year 2018–2019 in the pre -university education system”]. Retrieved from

Vendimi i Këshillit të Ministrave nr. 67 Për Themelimin e Institutit për Zhvillimin e Arsimit (2010, 10 shkurt) [Decision of the Council of Ministers No. 67 On the establishment of the Institute for Development of Education (2010, February 10)]. Retrieved March 20, 2019 from







How to Cite

Parents and Teachers’ Involvement in Designing Educational Programmes within the Albanian Curricula of Pre-university Education: Their Perceptions in this Context. (2020). Eastern European Journal of Transnational Relations, 4(1), 115-134.