Legal aspects of green-branding


  • Magdalena Rutkowska-Sowa University of Bialystok, Poland
  • Paweł Poznański University of Warsaw, Poland



trademark, green, eco, bio, absolute grounds for refusal, greenwashing


Trade mark law reflects economic and social trends. With the shift towards an economy based on sustainable development, the rise of environmental awareness among consumers, and the growing popularity of eco-marketing, marks containing indications such as „green”, „eco” or „bio” appear increasingly on the market. Such labels can inform and assist consumers in purchasing products that comply with the eco-requirements, strengthen the competitiveness of producers by promoting the least environmentally damaging products, offering higher quality products, and consequently encouraging both parties to act in an eco-friendly manner. Their registration is possible, but more difficult than for „classic trade marks” submitted for protection before the patent offices. This text is intended to provide an overview of the registration requirements of so-called „green trade marks”. The study mainly used the formal-dogmatic method. Based on an analysis of the European Union Intellectual Property Office practice and the judgments of the Court of Justice of the European Union, authors indicate the applicable interpretation of EU trade mark law. They analyze binding restrictions taking into account the interests of both individual market players and the public. This issue has not yet been commented on by the doctrine. Eco-labels and symbols, which can be used by entities meeting criteria that are defined by certification bodies are outside the scope of this review.


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Author Biographies


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How to Cite

Legal aspects of green-branding. (2023). Eastern European Journal of Transnational Relations, 6(2), 57-69.