Newest challenges of the European Union’s energy policy - legal aspects
Keywords:energy law, European Union law, energy policy
In the face of the most recent geopolitical events in Europe that have been carrying the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine, there have been significant changes on the European Union’s energy market. The aim of this article is to analyse and assess the practice of managing energy in the European Union from the perspective of EU energy in the context of these crises. It will present legislative changes at the Union level in the energy policy sector that are driven by these events and that force a change in attitudes towards energy management. It will use methods typical to law studies, that is the analysis of the law in force, the analysis of the development of relevant laws in history and legal comparison. Research results and conclusions point out that urgent binding legislative changes on the EU forum are necessary to adjust the energy policy to the existing reality and to face the most recent trials. Further legislative steps will be necessary to become independent from Russian raw materials and, primarily, to adapt the provisions of the European Green Deal and to provide further guidance to eliminate administrative barriers and to protect consumers on the energy market. The final part of the article identifies measures the EU must take in the short-, mid- and long-term perspective.
Aruga, K., Bolt, T. & Pest, P. (2021). Energy policy trade-offs in Poland: a best-worst scaling discrete choice experiment. Energy Policy, 156, 112465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2021.112465.
Cheba, K., Bąk, I., Szopik-Depczyńska, K. & Ioppolo, G. (2022). Directions of green transformation of the European Union countries. Ecological Indicators, 136, 108601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2022.108601.
Crook, M. & Short Marx, D. (2014). Lemkin and Gencide-Ecocide Nexus. The International Journal of Human Rights, 18(3), 298-319. https://doi.org/10.1080/13642987.2014.914703.
Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, OJ L 328, 21.12.2018, p. 82.
Directive (EU) 2018/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 amending Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency, OJ L 328, 21.12.2018, p. 210.
Directive (EU) 2019/944 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2019 on common rules for the internal market for electricity and amending Directive 2012/27/EU.
Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a system for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Union and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC, OJ L 275, 25.10.2003, p. 32.
Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Council Directive 93/12/EEC, OJ L 350 of 28.12.1998, p. 58.
European Commission (2021). Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and The Council on the Functioning of the European Carbon Market in 2020 pursuant to Articles 10(5) and 21(2) of Directive 2003/87/ED (as amended by Directive 2009/29/EC and Directive (EU) 2018/410), Brussels, 26.10.2021.
European Commission (2021a). Quarterly Report on Electricity Markets with focus on the impact of high commodity prices and recovery demand in the electricity sector. Market Observatory for Energy, DG Energy, Vol. 14, Issue 2, p. 24-28. Retrieved from: https://energy.ec.europa.eu/system/files/2022-01/Quarterly%20Report%20on%20European%20Electricity%20markets%20Q3%202021_v1.2_1.pdf.
European Commission (2021b). Press release: State of the Energy Union 2021: Renewables overtake fossil fuels as the
EU's main power source, Brussels, 27.10.2021. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_5554.
European Commission (2021c). Report from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. State of the Energy Union 2021 – Contributing to the European Green Deal and the Union’s recovery (pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action), Brussels, 26.10.2021, COM(2021) 950 final.
European Commission (2021d). Speeding up European climate action towards a green, fair and prosperous future. EU Climate Action Progress Report, November 2021.
European Commission (2021f). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions ‘Fit for 55’: delivering the EU's 2030 Climate Target on the way to climate neutrality, Brussels 14.07.2021, COM/2021/550 final.
European Commission (2021g). Energy prices: Commission presents a toolbox of measures to tackle exceptional situation and its impacts, 13.10.2021. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_21_5204.
European Commission (2022a). Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and The Council. Quality of petrol and diesel fuel used for road transport in the European Union (Reporting year 2019), Brussels, 26.10.2022.
European Commission (2022e). European Commission REPowerEU: A plan to rapidly reduce dependence on Russian fossil fuels and fast forward the green transition, 18.05.2022. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/pl/ip_22_3131.
European Commission (2022f). Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne Europy. Jak uniezależnić się od Rosji? Retrieved from: https://poland.representation.ec.europa.eu/publications/bezpieczenstwo-energetyczne-europy_pl?fbclid=IwAR1OxNDmUGRNIHOw6BOOmiCKlds4cAtEPn-PGzbye9mrJyCoPhVqmaijaWU.
European Commission (2022f). Save Gas for a Safe Winter: Commission proposes gas demand reduction plan to prepare EU for supply cuts, 20.07.2022. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_22_4608.
European Commission (2022g). Statement by Commissioner for Energy Kadri Simson on Synchronisation of the Continental European Electricity Grid with Ukraine and Moldova, 16.03.2022. Retrieved from: https://neighbourhood-enlargement.ec.europa.eu/news/statement-commissioner-energy-kadri-simson-synchronisation-continental-european-electricity-grid-2022-03-16_en.
European Commission (2022h). Questions and Answers on the REPowerEU Communication. 18.05.2022. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/qanda_22_3132.
European Commission, Delivering the European Green Deal. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal/delivering-european-green-deal_en#documents.
European Commission, Energy and the Green Deal. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal/energy-and-green-deal.
European Commission, Energy. Overview of EU policy, legislation and action for Energy. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/info/energy-climate-change-environment/topics/energy_en.
European Commission, European Green Deal. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal.
European Commmission (2019). National energy and climate plans. EU countries’ 10-year national energy and climate plans for 2021-2030. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/info/energy-climate-change-environment/implementation-eu-countries/energy-and-climate-governance-and-reporting/national-energy-and-climate-plans_pl#final-necps.
European Council, Council of Europe (2022e). Infographic - Impact of sanctions on the Russian economy. Retrieved from: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/infographics/impact-sanctions-russian-economy/.
European Council, Council of the European Union (2022a). EU response to Russia's invasion of Ukraine. Retrieved from: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/eu-response-ukraine-invasion/.
European Council, Council of the European Union (2022b). Infographic - EU sanctions in response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. Retreived from: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/infographics/eu-sanctions-russia-ukraine-invasion/.
European Council, Council of the European Union (2022c). Belarus’ role in the Russian military aggression of Ukraine: Council imposes sanctions on additional 22 individuals and further restrictions on trade, 2.03.2022. Retrieved from: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2022/03/02/belarus-role-in-the-russian-military-aggression-of-ukraine-council-imposes-sanctions-on-additional-22-individuals-and-further-restrictions-on-trade/.
European Council, Council of the European Union (2022d). Russia’s military aggression against Ukraine: EU agrees new sectoral measures targeting Belarus and Russia, 9.03.2022. Retrieved from: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2022/03/09/russia-s-military-aggression-against-ukraine-eu-agrees-new-sectoral-measures-targeting-belarus-and-russia/.
European Council, Council of the European Union (2022e). Energy prices and security of supply. Retrieved from: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/energy-prices/.
European Parliament (2021). Energy policy: general principles. Retrieved from: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/factsheets/en/sheet/68/energy-policy-general-principles.
European Union Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (2022). ACER Market Monitoring Report 2020 – Electricity Wholesale Market Volume, 12.01.2022. Retrieved from: https://acer.europa.eu/Official_documents/Acts_of_the_Agency/Publication/ACER%20Market%20Monitoring%20Report%202020%20%E2%80%93%20Electricity%20Wholesale%20Market%20Volume.pdf.
Frączyk, J. (2022). Mapa krajów uzależnionych od energii z gazu. Tam panuje strach przed embargiem na Rosję. Business Insider, 11.03.2022. Retreived from: https://businessinsider.com.pl/gospodarka/energia-z-gazu-mapa-krajow-uzaleznionych-od-rosji/tvvsrqp.
Freeland, S. (2005). Human Rights, the Environment and Conflict: addressing crimes against the environment. Revista international de direitos humanos, 2(2), 112-139. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-64452005000100006.
Killean, R. (2021). From ecocide to eco-sensitivity: “greening” reparations at the International Criminal Court. The International Journal of Human Rights, 25(2), 323-347. https://doi.org/10.1080/13642987.2020.1783531.
Krarti, M. & Aldubyan, M. (2021). Review analysis of COVID-19 impact on electricity demand for residential buildings. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 143, 110888. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2021.110888.
Miłek, D., Nowak, P. & Latosińska, J. (2022). The Development of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union in the Light of the European Green Deal. Energies, 15(15), 5576. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15155576.
Notice to stakeholders: Withdrawal of the United Kingdom and EU rules in the field of guarantees of origin of electricity from renewable sources, Brussels, 23 July 2020, REV2 – replaces the notice (REV1) dated 7 March 2018.
Notice to stakeholders: Withdrawal of the United Kingdom and EU rules in the field of the internal energy market, Brussels, 12 February 2021, REV2 – replaces the notice (REV1) dated 27 April 2018.
Nowak, B. (2009). Wewnętrzny rynek energii w Unii Europejskiej. C.H. Beck.
Office for Energy Regulation (2021), Integracja europejskiego rynku energii elektrycznej postępuje pomimo pandemii, 25.11.2021. Retrieved from: https://www.ure.gov.pl/pl/urzad/informacje-ogolne/aktualnosci/9923,Integracja-europejskiego-rynku-energii-elektrycznej-postepuje-pomimo-pandemii.html.
Polish Development Fund Group (2021). Pandemia w Europie. Zużycie energii. Raport Grupy Analiz Polskiego Funduszu Rozwoju. Retrieved from: https://pfr.pl/dam/jcr:7248cdee-4e4d-435f-8dc7-bbe3a377e37a/PFR_Elektryczno%C5%9B%C4%87_110821.pdf.
Politi, M. (2012). The ICC and the Crime of Aggression. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 10(1), 267-288. https://doi.org/10.1093/jicj/mqs001.
Proposal for a Council Directive restructuring the Union framework for the taxation of energy products and electricity (recast) Brussels 14.07.2021, COM/2021/563 final.
Proposal for a Council Regulation on coordinated demand reduction measures for gas, 20.07.2022, COM/2022/361 final.
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council, Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the promotion of energy from renewable sources, and repealing Council Directive (EU) 2015/652, Brussels, 14.7.2021, COM/2021/557 final.
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive (EU) 2018/2001 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, Directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings and Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency, 18.05.2022, COM/2022/222 final.
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy efficiency (recast), Brussels 14.07.2021, COM/2021/558 final.
Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL amending Regulation (EU) 2017/1938 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning measures to safeguard the security of gas supply and Regulation (EC) n°715/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on conditions for access to natural gas transmission networks, 23.03.2022, COM/2022/135 final.
Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Regulation (EU) 2018/842 on binding annual greenhouse gas emission reductions by Member States from 2021 to 2030 contributing to climate action to meet commitments under the Paris Agreement, Brussels, 14.7.2021, COM(2021) 555 final.
Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Regulation (EU) 2019/631 as regards strengthening the CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars and new light commercial vehicles in line with the Union’s increased climate ambition, Brussels, 14.07.2021, COM/2021/556 final.
Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a carbon border adjustment mechanism, Brussels 14.07.2021, COM/2021/564 final.
Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action, amending Regulations (EC) No 663/2009 and (EC) No 715/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council, Directives 94/22/EC, 98/70/EC, 2009/31/EC, 2009/73/EC, 2010/31/EU, 2012/27/EU and 2013/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, Council Directives 2009/119/EC and (EU) 2015/652 and repealing Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council (Text with EEA relevance.). OJ L 328, 21.12.2018, p. 1–77.
Regulation (EU) 2021/241 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 February 2021 establishing the Recovery and Resilience Facility, 12.02.2021, OJ L 57, 18.2.2021, p. 17–75.
Szafrański, A. (2011). Europeizacja prawa energetycznego. In H. Gronkiewicz-Waltz & K. Jaroszyński (Eds.), Europeizacja publicznego prawa gospodarczego (pp. 535-545). C.H. Beck.
The 2000 Green Paper: Towards a European strategy for the security of energy Supply, 29.11.2000, COM (2000) 769 final.
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, OJ C, 7.06.2016, as amended. European Union. Consolidated Version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union; European Union: Brussels, Belgium, 1957; p. 154.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, New York, 9.05.1992, UN Treaty Series, vol. 1771, p. 107; UNESCO 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21/CMP11).
Zakieri, B. et al. (2022). Pandemic, War and Global Energy Transitions. Energies, 15(17), 6114. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15176114.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Eastern European Journal of Transnational Relations
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyrigts & Open Access Policy
1. The works are published in the online edition of the journal under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NonDerivs 4.0 Internacional License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). You can copy, use, distribute, transmit and publicly display, provided acknowledgment of the authorship, the url, and the journal, and not used for commercial purposes. For license details please see: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.
2. The journal conserves the patrimonial rights (copyright) of the works published, and encourages and allows the reuse of the same under the license specified in point 1.
3. The journal allows authors to spread electronically (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their own website) the published version of his works, as it encourages its circulation and diffusion earliest and thus a possible increase in its citation and scope between the academic community.
4. The author(s) has read and accepts the terms contained in the Author Statement.